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The form first developed in Europe from various earlier sources, and comic operas were popular in the early 1700s. The person most associated with them is Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880). Born in Germany of Jewish heritage, he became celebrated in France, writing more than 100 comic works. His Orfee aux Enfers (usually translated as Orpheus in Hell or Orpheus in the Underworld ), created in 1858, is regarded as the first true operetta. The story spoofs the Greek legend of Orpheus and Eurydice and includes a piece titled 'Infernal Galop', music for an elaborate raucous dance scene that's still played in many orchestral pops concerts today. Offenbach's other works include Le Belle Helene (1864), a farce about Helen of Troy, and Les Brigands (1869).

Another European composer of operettas was Johann Strauss II (1825-1899), from Vienna, Austria. Strauss was best known as the' Waltz King' for compositions like 'The Blue Danube', but he also wrote a series of light operettas, including Die Fledermaus ( The Bat , 1874). The plot involves drunken nighttime antics, lovers, a masked ball, and a bat costume.

In England, Sir William S. Gilbert (1836-1911), a dramatist, and Arthur Sullivan (1842 -1900), a composer and conductor, collaborated on 14 comic operettas. The Gilbert and Sullivan team created imaginative works featuring funny, rapid-fire lyrics and elaborate musical sequences. They're some of the most popular in the world, and include H. M. S. Pinafore (1878), about the romantic complications of a sailor and a Captain's daughter. But possibly Gilbert and Sullivan's most popular work is Pirates of Penzance (1879), with a tangled plot about a young sailor, a gang of pirates, and the daughter of a Major General. Both works have been featured in countless revivals, including on Broadway.

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Operetta in America

In the early twentieth century, composers in America began creating operettas, many of which were first performed in New York. (1859-1924) a cellist and conductor, wrote 43 operettas. Among his most famous are (1903), created to replicate the success of , a version of which had recently run on Broadway. has a complicated plot involving children, shipwrecks, despots, Mother Goose Characters, a land where toys come to life, and insects. Whew! Another Victor Herbert operetta, (1910), takes place in New Orleans. It features a tangled tale of a runaway countess and pirates and includes the song 'Ah! Sweet Mystery of Life'. You might remember it was used to very comic effect when a character has sex in the movie !

Another composer, (1887-1951), a Hungarian who settled in New York, wrote several popular operettas, including and . His most famous is (1925), in which a prince disguises his identify and enjoys student life, drinking in beer halls and falling in love with a barmaid. Romberg was one of the last to create operettas in the classic form. By the 1930s, jazz, popular music by composers like George Gershwin and Irvin Berlin, and shorter-style musicals took over the stage. But the best operettas continue to be revived and enjoyed today.

Lesson Summary

The is a musical theater form that's lighter in tone than full opera and often involves romance and farce. Famous European operetta composers include , who created the first true operetta with ; , composer of ; and , the team responsible for . In America, was known for , and created .

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Strategic Practices at Work

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The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) is working to change the narrative and framing of population health data to emphasize the importance of structural inequities and social determinants of health. CDPHE is also working to incorporate equity metrics into program evaluations and performance monitoring and use boilerplate language regarding equity in CDPHE publications.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Office of Health Equity

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below for more ways to take action.

Office of Health Equity transitions to Health in All Policies focus

In 2016, the Office of Health Equity (OHE) underwent an important transition in leadership, staffing, and vision. New staff brought with them a commitment to and experience working on health equity and environmental justice. An overarching component of the new vision was to incorporate a Health in All Policies focus into the Office of Health Equity’s work moving forward. One staff member had participated in Human Impact Partners’ first Public Health and Equity Cohort (now called the Leather Statement Clutch Colorful by VIDA VIDA iYXZ2D5
), which highlighted the importance of intersectoral, cross-governmental, and community-engaged work and provided numerous examples of health equity work happening in health departments across the United States.

Health Equity and Environmental Justice Collaborative members serve as ambassadors across the department

Around the same time, the Department’s Health Equity and Environmental Justice Collaborative (HEEJC) gained momentum, capacity, and support to advance health equity and environmental justice. Given the alignment between the offices, OHE and HEEJC coordinated and complemented each other’s activities as much as possible. HEEJC members came to be viewed as ambassadors across the health department, helping transmit learning and communications about equity and justice, as well as identifying opportunities to address equity within the work of each of their own divisions —for example, by changing hiring practices or collecting and analyzing data differently.

Health equity training leads to department conversations about equity

As described in the other CDPHE case study , HEEJC and OHE organized a 101 training for all CDPHE staff on health equity and environmental justice. The training provided a foundation to understand health equity and environmental justice topics and aimed to pique staff interest in the topics. The 101 training included facilitated discussions about how to embed equity in the day-to-day work of health department staff, wherever they work — as environmental health inspectors, program evaluators, public health nurses, grants and fiscal managers, etc.

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